Autologous cells are the body's own cells, i.e. recipient and donor are identical. Some new types of cell therapies use autologous cells to deal with defects of for example intervertebral discs or knee cartilage. Autologous transplants are not beset by dangerous immune responses.
BiopsyA technique in which tiny samples of tissue or cells are removed from a living organism for examination. Biopsies involve minimal surgery.
BioreactorsContained environments in which cells are cultured under stable conditions (e.g. temperature, sustenance and air pressure). Bioreactors enable scientists to cultivate, develop and breed cells under optimal conditions.
CellThe smallest biological unit making up all organisms. Humans have about 200 different types of cells.
The basis for testing and assessing the development, characteristics and functionality of organic cells outside a body (in vitro) under controlled conditions. The methods used ('cell culture assays') are standardized and are used frequently in research and medicine.
Therapeutic strategies in which cells are cultured outside the patient's body and implanted afterwards in degenerated tissue or organs to stimulate self-healing or replace dysfunctional cells.
Substances or structures that can carry regulatory molecules to predetermined places within the body. One example is nanoparticles with embedded therapeutic substances.
DifferentiationThe development of an undifferentiated progenitor cell (e.g. stem cell) into a specific cell type. Biological structures such as organs and tissue also develop from less to more specialized states. Since adult differentiated cells are no longer able to multiply endlessly, obtaining enough differentiated cells for therapy is difficult. Apart from cell division, differentiation also contributes to modifying the structure, form and function of multicellular life forms.
Embryonic stem cellsUndifferentiated stem cells occurring in an early-stage embryo. Being pluripotent, they are able to develop into any body cells.
ex vivoThe term used to denote techniques in which living material such as cells is extracted from an organism and then cultured and examined outside the body.
GMPThe abbreviation for "good manufacturing practice" - a system of guidelines for quality assurance used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs and active ingredients. A GMP-conform quality management system is used for implementation. The regulations governing pharmaceutical applications are imposed by for instance the EU's European Medicines Agency.
Graft-versus-host disease (GvHD)An immunological reaction which may occur as the result of an allogeneic cell transplant in which the donor cells are incompatible with the recipient's organism.
in vitroA term referring to all processes outside living organisms. It includes all laboratory experiments on cells in test tubes, bioreactors, Petri dishes, cell culture environments, etc.
in vivoA term referring to all processes taking place inside living organisms.
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS)
PotentialityThe degree of differentiation by which stem cells can be distinguished.
Totipotency refers to the ability to develop into a complete organism. This ability is possessed by fertilized egg cells, which are protected by embryo protection legislation.
Pluripotency is the ability to differentiate into any cell type of the organism but not an entire organism. This characteristic exists in embryonic stem cells.
Multipotency is the ability of a stem cell to develop into various - but not all - cell types of an organism.
Regenerative medicineA relatively young branch of biomedicine. Research focuses on identifying self-healing processes in the human body and using them to develop new diagnostic and treatment procedures.
Regulatory moleculesRegulatory molecules can control specific cell types or tissue by triggering certain cell mechanisms. For example, they can stimulate the production of certain substances necessary for regeneration.
Stem cellsStem cells maintain the growth and renewal of an organism. They are undifferentiated cells which are able to differentiate into various cell types and tissue. Depending on their type and how they are influenced, embryonic stem cells can develop into any tissue while adult stem cells can develop into specific tissue types. Due to these abilities they play a key role in the development of new cell therapies.
Stem cell researchThe scientific study of embryonic, fetal and adult stem cells of all types of organisms. Interdisciplinary research chiefly comprises medicine and biology, although other areas such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, materials science and engineering as well as philosophy, ethics and law are also involved. The main aim is to develop therapies for the regeneration of dysfunctional, damaged or functionally impaired organs and tissue by using cells developed from stem cells.
Tissue engineeringOne of the main technologies of regenerative medicine. It involves taking tissue from an organism, culturing it in the laboratory, and then reimplanting it. In this way, dysfunctional tissue can be regenerated or destroyed tissue replaced in order to restore its function.
TRM LeipzigThe Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine was founded in 2006 with the aim of developing and evaluating new types of diagnosis and therapy of regenerative medicine and transferring the findings to clinical applications. TRM Leipzig's work is funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, the Free State of Saxony and the Universität Leipzig. Following evaluation and international comparison in 2010, TRM Leipzig began its second, four-year phase of funding in April 2011.
Xenogeneic cellsXenogeneic cells are used for transfer between different species, for example from pigs to humans.